Pelvic pain is discomfort in the lower abdomen; it is a common complaint in women. It is considered separately from perineal pain, which occurs in the external genitals and nearby perineal skin.
Cause\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\Many different conditions can cause pelvic pain including:
exaggerated bladder, bowel, or uterine pain sensitivity (also known as visceral pain)
pelvic girdle pain (SPD or DSP)
Dysmenorrhea—pain during the menstrual period
Endometriosis—pain caused by uterine tissue that is outside the uterus
Pelvic inflammatory disease—pain caused by damage from infections
Ovarian cysts—the ovary produces a large, painful cyst, which may rupture
Ovarian torsion—the ovary is twisted in a way that interferes with its blood supply
Ectopic pregnancy—a pregnancy implanted outside the uterus
Loin pain hematuria syndrome
Proctitis—infection or inflammation of the anus or rectum
Colitis—infection or inflammation of the colon
Appendicitis—infection or inflammation of the bowel
Workup\\\\\The diagnostic workup begins with a careful history and examination, followed by a pregnancy test. Some women may also need bloodwork or additional imaging studies, and a handful may also benefit from having surgical evaluation.
The absence of visible pathology in chronic pain syndromes should not form the basis for either seeking psychological explanations or questioning the reality of the patient’s pain. Instead it is essential to approach the complexity of chronic pain from a psychophysiological perspective which recognises the importance of the mind-body interaction. Some of the mechanisms by which the limbic system impacts on pain, and in particular myofascial pain, have been clarified by research findings in neurology and psychophysiology
Treatment \[color=brown]\Many women will benefit from a consultation with a physical therapist, a trial of anti-inflammatory medications, hormonal therapy, or even neurological agents.
A hysterectomy is sometimes performed